There have been lots of answers to this question by lots of people. This is a amateur and non-academic stab at the issue.
Those who argue against secular morality almost inevitable talk about the necessity of ‘absolute morality.’ But what does that mean? As far as I can tell, absolute morality means holding up some outside moral authority over even your own conscience. This is demonstrated in the way that most of the major religions hold up obedience as one of the highest virtues. Probably most the the time your conscience will agree with the authority. But what if the authority in question demands something that disagrees with your conscience? Does obeying your conscience ever mean disobeying the absolute authority?
- As an example from the Bible, consider the Abraham and Isaac story. Was it moral for Abraham to kill his son? By what moral standard? I agree with Julia Sweeney on this one–if you perceive that a God is telling you to kill your child is not the proper answer ‘No I will NOT even if it means I’m going to hell!’?
- What about conscientious objectors to war? In the context of morality do you think it makes sense to hold the authority of your own conscience over that of your countries leaders? If you want to answer this from a Christian point of view, please reread Romans 13 first.
- The ‘conscience’ objection for pharmacists re:birth control? What other medications might a pharmacist object to for conscience reasons? And what kind of moral standard is being upheld by withholding women’s access to birth control?
My conclusion is that if you hold up the dictates of your own conscience over that of an outside moral authority, then you can’t believe that morality is absolute. Why is it not considered morally acceptable for a soldier to torture prisoners or commit other war crimes and then claim ‘I was only following orders?’ Absolute morality and personal responsibility do not fit together.
My personal view is that morality does not come from ‘on high,’ from some absolute source whether it’s God or something else like the rulers of your country. It is an inevitable product of a society where people must live together and interact with each other. Good moral acts are those that take into consideration the well-being and happiness of yourself and of those around you. I’m not a professional philosopher, but I’ve found that in my daily life this has been a good rule of thumb. Since there is no static list of rules that takes into account each and every situation and moral choice in life, morality is situational. Each and every moral decision is unique.